探究與整理『Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards~A Guide for Teaching and Learning』

      看這份美國的『Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards~A Guide for Teaching and Learning (探究與國家科學教育指標:教與學指引)』好多個月了,今天認真整理其中的教與學關聯,總共有四個**區塊喔!:

*5~8年級學生的能力與理解,原文是把能力與理解分開表列,我把他們對應整理在一起,理由是:行動表現之際,是先有一些瞭解才能出手行動的。

P19 Table 2-2.   Content Standard for Science as Inquiry

Abilities/Understanding

1.Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations.
建立問題,藉由研究調查來加以回答

Different kinds of questions suggest different kinds of scientific investigations.
不同類型的問題有不同的科學調研方式

2.Design and conduct a scientific investigation.
設計與執行科學調研

Current scientific knowledge and understanding guide scientific investigations.
既有的科學知識與理解將引導科學調研

3.Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.
使用合適的工具與技術來蒐集、分析與詮釋資料。
Technology used to gather data enhances accuracy and allows scientists to analyze and quantify results of investigations.
利用科技蒐集資料能提昇準確性,讓科學家得以分析與量化調研結果


4.Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.
利用證據來描述、解釋、預測與建模

5.Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations.
批判與邏輯地思考,在證據與解釋之間建立關聯

Scientific explanations emphasize evidence, have logically consistent arguments, and use scientific principles, models, and theories.
科學解釋強調證據,具邏輯一致性的論述,以及使用科學原理、模型與理論


6.Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions.
辨識與分析替代的解釋與預測

Science advances through legitimate skepticism.
透過合理的懷疑,科學才得以進步


7.Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.
與人溝通有關的科學程序與解釋

Scientific investigations sometimes result in new ideas and phenomena for study, generate new methods or procedures for an investigation, or develop new technologies to improve the collection of data.
有時候科學調研來自:研究的新想法與現象、形成研究的新方法或流程,或者發展新科技以改善資源蒐集

8.Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.
在科學探索的各面向應用數學

Mathematics is important in all aspects of scientific inquiry.
在所有的科學探究中,數學都很重要

*教師的行動指標~想看到這樣的學習表現,那麼老師就要有所行動,這部份,我利用ASSURE、老師專業意成長與社群參與集能整合起來:
P22.Table 2-4.  Science Teaching Standards     
A:Teachers of science plan an inquiry-based science program for their students. In doing this, teachers
為學生規劃探究式科學方案

                Develop a framework of yearlong and short-term goals for students.

                Select science content and adapt and design curricula to meet the interests, knowledge, understanding, abilities, and experiences of students.

                Select teaching and assessment strategies that support the development of student understanding and nurture a community of science learners.

                Work together as colleagues within and across disciplines and grade levels.

B:Teachers of science guide and facilitate learning. In doing this, teachers
引導與促進學習

                Focus and support inquiries while interacting with students.

                Orchestrate discourse among students about scientific ideas.

                Challenge students to accept and share responsibility for their own learning.

                Recognize and respond to student diversity and encourage all students to participate fully in science learning.

                Encourage and model the skills of scientific inquiry, as well as the curiosity, openness to new ideas and data, and skepticism that characterize science.

      C:Teachers of science engage in ongoing assessment of their teaching and of student learning. In doing this, teachers
投入教與學的持續評量

                Use multiple methods and systematically gather data about student understanding and ability.

                Analyze assessment data to guide teaching.

                Guide students in self-assessment.

                Use student data, observations of teaching, and interactions with colleagues to reflect on and improve teaching practice.

                Use student data, observations of teaching, and interactions with colleagues to report student achievement and opportunities to learn to students, teachers, parents, policymakers, and the general public.

      D:Teachers of science design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources needed for learning science. In doing this, teachers
設計與管理學習環境,提供學生們學習科學的時間、空間與資源

                Structure the time available so that students are able to engage in extended investigations.

                Create a setting for student work that is flexible and supportive of science inquiry.

                Ensure a safe working environment.

                Make the available science tools, materials, media, and technological resources accessible to students.

                Identify and use resources outside the school.

                Engage students in designing the learning environment.

      E:Teachers of science develop communities of science learners that reflect the intellectual rigor of scientific inquiry and the attitudes and social values conducive to science learning. In doing this, teachers
發展學習者社群,省思科學探究的rigor,以及科學學習的態度與社會價值

                Display and demand respect for the diverse ideas, skills, and experiences of all students.

                Enable students to have a significant voice in decisions about the content and context of their work and require students to take responsibility for the learning of all members of the community.

                Nurture collaboration among students.

                Structure and facilitate ongoing formal and informal discussion based on a shared understanding of rules of scientific discourse.

                Model and emphasize the skills, attitudes, and values of scientific inquiry.

      F:Teachers of science actively participate in the ongoing planning and development of the school science program. In doing this, teachers
科學教師主動參與學校科學方案的持續規劃與發展。

                Plan and develop the school science program.

                Participate in decisions concerning the allocation of time and other resources to the science program.

                Participate fully in planning and implementing professional growth and development strategies for themselves and their colleagues.

*教室裡的樣貌~老師安排了機會讓學生表現,這樣教室裡就看得到這種光景,每項有多子項,從先到後代表最主動到最被動,我沒翻完:

P25 Table 2-5.  Essential Features of Classroom Inquiry

      1. Learners are engaged by scientifically oriented questions.

學習者投入科學導向的問題
      Learner poses a question
提出問題

      Learner selects among questions, poses new questions   
從問題中選擇,提出新問題

      Learner sharpens or clarifies question provided by teacher, materials, or other source
從老師、材料或其他資源中,精確與釐清問題

      Learner engages in question provided by teacher, materials, or other source
學習者投入從老師、材料或其他資源所提供的問題


2. Learners give priority to evidence, which allows them to develop and evaluate explanations that address scientifically oriented questions.
學習者優先尋找證據,用來發展和評價關於科學導向問題的解釋

Learner determines what constitutes evidence and collects it   
決定哪些將形成證據並加以蒐集

      Learner directed to collect certain data   
被引導來蒐集相當的資料

      Learner given data and asked to analyze 
學習者獲得資料,被要求進行分析

      Learner given data and told how to analyze
學習者獲得資料,被告知如何分析

3.Learners formulate explanations from evidence to address scientifically oriented questions.
學習者從證據形成解釋來說明科學導向問題

      Learner formulates explanation after summarizing evidence

      Learner guided in process of formulating explanations from evidence

      Learner given possible ways to use evidence to formulate explanation     

      Learner provided with evidence and how to use evidence to formulate explanation


4.Learners evaluate their explanations in light of alternative explanations, particularly those reflecting scientific understanding.

學習者參考替代解釋來評價他們的解釋,特別是那些能反映(省思)科學的理解

      Learner independently examines other resources and forms the links to explanations

      Learner directed toward areas and sources of scientific knowledge 

      Learner given possible connections
      
5.Learners communicate and justify their proposed explanations.

學習者溝通和證明他們所提出的解釋     

      Learner forms reasonable and logical argument to communicate explanations   

      Learner coached in development of communication

      Learner provided broad guidelines to use sharpen communication   

      Learner given steps and procedures for communication

*共通的元素~不同的教學模式都可以達成這樣的探究學習特徵

P35 Table 2-7.  Common Components Shared by Instructional Models

Phase 1: Students engage with a scientific question, event, or phenomenon.
學生專注於一個科學問題、事件或現象

      This connects with what they already know, creates dissonance with their own ideas, and/or motivates them to learn more.

Phase 2: Students explore ideas though hands-on experiences, formulate and test hypotheses, solve problems, and create explanations for what they observe.
學生透過動手實驗探索想法,形成與測試假說,解決問題,並且從他們的觀察中建立解釋
cyc:所以,主張不見得一開始就知道有沒有?

Phase 3: Students analyze and interpret data, synthesize their ideas, build models, and clarify concepts and explanations with teachers and other sources of scientific knowledge.
學生分析與詮釋資料,組織想法、建立模型,與老師和其他科學知識來源釐清概念與解釋

Phase 4: Students extend their new understanding and abilities and apply what they have learned to new situations.
學生延伸他們的新理解與能力,並應用所學於新情境中

Phase 5: Students, with their teachers, review and assess what they have learned and how they have learned it.
學生們與老師回顧與檢視他的已學得的以及如何學得

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